# Interpreting Display. In Exercises 1 and 2, use the given data and the corresponding display to…

Interpreting Display. In Exercises 1 and 2, use the given data and the corresponding display to express the confidence interval in the format of Also write a statement that interprets the confidence interval.1. Weights of Dollar Coins 95% confidence; n = 20, = 8.0710 g, s = 0.0411 g (based on measurements made by the author). See the following SPSS display. SPSS 2. Weights of Plastic Discarded by Households 99% confidence; n = 62, = 1.911 lb, s = 1.065 lb (based on data from the Garbage Project, University of Arizona). See the TI-83/84 Plus calculator display in the margin.Q624Garlic for Reducing Cholesterol In a test of the effectiveness of garlic for lowering cholesterol, 47 subjects were treated with Garlicin, which is garlic in a processed tablet form. Cholesterol levels were measured before and after the treatment. The changes in their levels of LDL cholesterol (in mg dL) have a mean of 3.2 and a standard deviation of 18.6 (based on data from “Effect of Raw Garlic vs Commercial Garlic Supplements on Plasma Lipid Concentrations in Adults With Moderate Hypercholesterolemia,” by Gardner et al., Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 167).a. What is the best point estimate of the population mean net change in LDL cholesterol after the Garlicin treatment?b. Construct a 95% confidence interval estimate of the mean net change in LDL cholesterol after the Garlicin treatment. What does the confidence interval suggest about the effectiveness of Garlicin in reducing LDL cholesterol?Q625Birth Weights A random sample of the birth weights of 186 babies has a mean of 3103 g and a standard deviation of 696 g (based on data from “Cognitive Outcomes of Preschool Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure,” by Singer et al., Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 291, No. 20). These babies were born to mothers who did not use cocaine during their pregnancies.a. What is the best point estimate of the mean weight of babies born to mothers who did not use cocaine during their pregnancies?b. Construct a 95% confidence interval estimate of the mean birth weight for all such babies.c. Compare the confidence interval from part (b) to this confidence interval obtained from birth weights of babies born to mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy: 2608 g < μ < 2792 g. Does cocaine use appear to affect the birth weight of a baby?Q626Mean Body Temperature Data Set 2 in Appendix B includes 106 body temperatures for which = 98.20°F and s = 0.62°F.a. What is the best point estimate of the mean body temperature of all healthy humans?b. Using the sample statistics, construct a 99% confidence interval estimate of the mean body temperature of all healthy humans. Do the confidence interval limits contain 98.6°F? What does the sample suggest about the use of 98.6°F as the mean body temperature?Data Set 2: Body Temperatures (in degrees Fahrenheit) of Healthy AdultsData provided by Dr. Steven Wasserman, Dr. Philip Mackowiak, and Dr. Myron Levine of the University of Maryland.STATDISK:Data set name for the 12 A.M. temperatures on Day 2 is Bodytemp.Minitab:Worksheet name for the 12 A.M. temperatures on Day 2 is BODYTEMP.MTW.Excel:Workbook name for the 12 A.M. temperatures on Day 2 is BODYTEMP.XLS. TI-83/84 Plus:App name for 12 A.M. temperatures on Day 2 is BTEMP and the file name is BTEMP.Text files:Text file name is BTEMP.Q627Atkins Weight Loss Program In a test of the Atkins weight loss program, 40 individuals participated in a randomized trial with overweight adults. After 12 months, the mean weight loss was found to be 2.1 lb, with a standard deviation of 4.8 lb.a. What is the best point estimate of the mean weight loss of all overweight adults who follow the Atkins program?b. Construct a 99% confidence interval estimate of the mean weight loss for all such subjects.c. Does the Atkins program appear to be effective? Is it practical?Q628Echinacea Treatment In a study designed to test the effectiveness of echinacea for treating upper respiratory tract infections in children, 337 children were treated with Echinacea and 370 other children were given a placebo. The numbers of days of peak severity of symptoms for the echinacea treatment group had a mean of 6.0 days and a standard deviation of 2.3 days. The numbers of days of peak severity of symptoms for the placebo group had a mean of 6.1 days and a standard deviation of 2.4 days (based on data from “Efficacy and Safety of Echinacea in Treating Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Children,” by Taylor et al., Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 290, No. 21).a. Construct the 95% confidence interval for the mean number of days of peak severity of symptoms for those who receive echinacea treatment.b. Construct the 95% confidence interval for the mean number of days of peak severity of symptoms for those who are given a placebo.c. Compare the two confidence intervals. What do the results suggest about the effectiveness of echinacea?Q629Acupuncture for Migraines In a study designed to test the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating migraine, 142 subjects were treated with acupuncture and 80 subjects were given a sham treatment. The numbers of migraine attacks for the acupuncture treatment group had a mean of 1.8 and a standard deviation of 1.4. The numbers of migraine attacks for the sham treatment group had a mean of 1.6 and a standard deviation of 1.2.a. Construct the 95% confidence interval estimate of the mean number of migraine attacks for those treated with acupuncture.b. Construct the 95% confidence interval estimate of the mean number of migraine attacks for those given a sham treatment.c. Compare the two confidence intervals. What do the results suggest about the effectiveness of acupuncture?Q630Magnets for Treating Back Pain In a study designed to test the effectiveness of magnets for treating back pain, 20 patients were given a treatment with magnets and also a sham treatment without magnets. Pain was measured using a standard Visual Analog Scale (VAS). After given the magnet treatments, the 20 patients had VAS scores with a mean of 5.0 and a standard deviation of 2.4. After being given the sham treatments, the 20 patients had VAS scores with a mean of 4.7 and a standard deviation of 2.9.a. Construct the 95% confidence interval estimate of the mean VAS score for patients given the magnet treatment.b. Construct the 95% confidence interval estimate of the mean VAS score for patients given a sham treatment.c. Compare the results. Does the treatment with magnets appear to be effective?