The cardiovascular is the transport system of the body which i… 1 answer below »

The cardiovascular is the transport system of the body which includes the heart, the blood vessels and the blood. The main function of the cardiovascular system is to transport inhaled oxygen and nutrients from the lungs to body tissue and removal of carbon dioxide to the heart (Scanlon & Sanders 2018). The heart is a muscular organ that pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs and oxygenated blood to the body. It lies in the centre of the thoracic cavity and is surrounded by two serous membranes. It is approximately 12 cm long, 9 cm width and 6 cm thick (Watson 2018). It has the right and left halves. The right upper chamber of the heart is an atrium and lower chamber is right ventricle whereas the left upper chamber is left atrium and lower is left ventricles. The right upper chamber carries deoxygenated blood through the right ventricle and to the lungs whereas the left atrium carries the oxygenated blood to the left ventricle which is distributed to the different parts of the body. The blood vessels consist of arteries, arterioles, venules, veins and capillaries (Martini et al. 2017). Arteries carry oxygenated blood whereas veins carry deoxygenated blood.A variety of changes in the cardiovascular system occur during normal pregnancy which includes an increase in cardiac output, increase in plasma volume, arterial compliance, extracellular fluid volume, decrease in total peripheral resistance and blood pressure (Battarbee et al. 2020). Moreover, the heart is physiologically dilated, and myocardial contractility is increased. Similarly, blood flow to various organs increases during pregnancy to meet the increased metabolic needs of tissues which increases cardiac output until term. This leads to an increase in stroke volume and heart rate which causes a decrease in blood pressure in first and second trimesters, however, it increases in the third trimester.Walker, M 2018, Hypertension in pregnancy may foretell lifetime of problems, poster, CRT online, LondonBlood pressure is the force that pushes against your blood vessel walls each time your heart squeezes and relaxes to pump the blood through your body (Martini et al. 2017). It helps to move blood around the body through the circulatory system, provide information about the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system and helps in the exchange of the nutrients and gases across the capillaries. The blood pressure is written over systolic over the diastolic pressure. The systolic arterial pressure is created when the left ventricle contracts, blood is pumped into the aorta; then the left ventricle empties, relaxes and begins to fill again then the aortic pressure falls creating diastolic artrial pressure. The normal blood pressure is 120/80 mm of Hg. Because ofMarple 202,Chronic high blood pressure in pregnancy, poster, 30 September 2020, https://www.babycenter.com/pregnancy/health-and-safety/chronic-high-blood-pressure-in-pregnancy_1427404gestational physiology blood pressure decreases during the first trimester, reaches its lowest point by mid-pregnancy and then return to prepregnancy levels during the third trimester.High blood pressure or hypertension is the force against the walls of the blood vessels which is consistently too high that causes damage to the tissue of the arteries and hampers workload of heart and blood vessels. Chronic hypertension is defined as Systolic blood pressure that is more than 140 mm of Hg and diastolic blood pressure more than 90 mm of Hg before pregnancy or twenty weeks of amenorrhea (The Australian Government Department of Health 2020). Hypertension affects five to ten per cent of pregnancies and is the leading cause of premature death (WHO 2019). The various causes for high blood pressure in pregnancy are:Maternal causes: Lack of physical exercises Obesity Family history of pregnancy related hypertension Drinking and smoking Endocrine disorders which include diabetes mellitus, Cushing syndrome Acute renal failure and other kidney diseases Pregnancy less than twenty or age over thirty-five. Carrying twins or more Sleep disorders Pregnancy: Previous Eclampsia Multiple gestations Short term Maternal and perinatal Complication (Egeland et al.2018) are: Risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia: high blood pressure cause seizure (change in electric activity in the brain) known as eclampsia. Preeclampsia is complication illustrated by high blood pressure during pregnancy that generally begins after 20 weeks of pregnancy. It can cause fatal problems for both mother and baby. Placental abruption which leads to heavy bleeding and may result in shock of mother and stillbirth Normal delivery becomes difficult and needs to perform surgical delivery. Injury to other organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver and other major organs if poorly controlled. Poor growth of your baby due to lower nutrition and oxygen supply from the placenta. High chance of neonatal unit admission after delivery Decreased blood flow to the placenta which results in low birth weight of neonates. Long Term complication (WHO 2019): Increased risk of Cardiovascular disease, renal failure, Diabetics Mellitus. Preterm delivery (delivery before 37 weeks of pregnancy) that can cause physical and mental disabilities in babies. Congenital anomalies with the highest risk of abnormalities in babies. General Recommendation for management includes: Daily folic acid supplementation, calcium supplementation, eat green leafy vegetables, sodium restriction, avoidance of alcohol, smoking and other harmful drugs during pregnancy (Agrawal & Wenger 2020). Problem specific evaluation that includes regular measurement of blood pressure and reports to the doctor if your blood pressure is higher. Inform the doctors if you are having any medications and know if they are safe. Perform blood and urine test to know how well your liver and kidney are functioning and ultrasound scan to assess your baby’s growth. Regular antenatal and postnatal visit should be performed to prevent further injuries from the disease. Stay active: you need a regular exercise with caution to maintain your body weight and prevent the risk of preeclampsia and take enough rest Take blood pressure medication as prescribed: always take the medicine only with the prescription of your health care provider. Identify earlier maternal and fetal complication and determine the optimal time for delivery. You should immediately see the health professionals if you have any sign and symptoms. In conclusion, it is our responsibility to reduce fetal and morbidity and mortality by following comprehensive plan of care which includes prenatal counselling, frequent antenatal visits during pregnancy, timely delivery, appropriate intrapartum monitoring and care and eating healthy foods.Reference List:Agrawal, A & Wenger, NK 2020, ‘Hypertension During Pregnancy’Current Hypertension Reports, vol. 22, no. 64, p. 1-9, viewed 25 September 2020, https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.usc.edu.au/article/10.1007/s11906-020-01070-0?fbclid=IwAR2wmHooTmVJMOAzCPGSvNX9Ad4i4XTY02YZNDD4inCscilE_jPXAWIez5MAmerican College of Obstetrician and Gynecologist 2019, Taking a rational approach to hypertension in the pregnant patient, guidelines, 20 September 2020, http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.usc.edu.au:2048/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=13&sid=a096e7b2-4b84-4aa6-8c73-6a755eda3600%40sdc-v-sessmgr02Australian Government Department of Health 2018, Blood pressure, pregnancy care guidelines, viewed 28 September 2020, https://www.health.gov.au/resources/pregnancy-care-guidelines/part-d-clinical-assessments/blood-pressureBattarbee, AN, Sinkey, RG, Harper, LM, Oparil, S & Tita, A 2020, ‘Chronic hypertension in pregnancy’, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 222, no. 6, pp. 532-541, viewed 28 September 2020, https://www-sciencedirect-com.ezproxy.usc.edu.au/science/article/pii/S0002937819326134#!Egeland, GM, Skurtveit, S, Staff, AC, Eide, GE, Daltveit, AK, Klungsoyr, K, Trogstad, L, Magnus, PM, Brantsaeter, AL, & Haugen, M 2018, ‘Pregnancy related risk factors are associated with a significant burden of treated hypertension within 10 years of delivery: Findings from a population based Norwegian Cohort’,Journal of the American Heart Association, vol. 7, no. 10, viewed 27 September 2020, https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/JAHA.117.008318Martini, FH, Nath, JL & Bartholomew, EF 2017, Blood vessels and circulation, 11th edn, Pearson Education Limited, England.Scanlon, VC & Sanders, T 2018, The heart, 8th edn, F.A Davis company, Philadelphia.Watson, R 2018, The heart, 14th edn, Elsevier limited, Poland.World Health Organization 2019, Hypertension, fact sheet, viewed on 28 September 2020, https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hypertension

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