Look at public relations case studies (search for ‘public
relations awards’, for example). Can you find examples of the substitution
game? That is, process (output) evaluation – most often press coverage –
masquerading as impact (outcome) evaluation. Have you any ideas how the
evaluation could be more impact-orientated?
Why do people play the substitution game? Reasons could
include using data that are easily available rather than useful, and lack of
confidence that the programme will achieve the outcomes predicted by the